Rachel Green

Academic Titles: 

725 N. Wolfe St.


Baltimore, MD 21205

Research Interest: 
Ribosomal RNA and the mechanism of translation

The ribosome is the two-subunit macromolecular complex responsible for the translation of the genetic code into functional polypeptides. The ribosome is composed of RNA (3 large rRNAs in bacteria) and protein (more than 50 r-proteins in bacteria) in a mass ratio of about 2 to 1. We are interested in understanding how this ribonucleoprotein machine catalyzes and coordinates the complex molecular events of translation. These studies may reveal important details that impact on the function of other RNP machines such as the spliceosome and telomerase and may uncover clues that address the early origins of life and the potential of an ‘RNA world’. As ribosomes are the target of many clinically relevant anti-microbial agents (erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and the aminoglycosides), the implications of these studies for drug development are significant.

Work in the Green lab is centered on the ribosome, and can be roughly divided into four general project areas. The longest-standing research area concerns the interactions of eubacterial ribosomes and release factors. The goal of these projects is to understand the mechanism of action of release factors on the ribosome. A second research area involves biochemical and structure/function studies of the miRNA pathway, particularly the mechanism of action of the Argonaute proteins and their interacting factors. A third area of work in the lab is centered around regulation of eukaryotic translation, specifically in understanding the mechanism behind various mRNA quality control pathways, and the interactions of proteins therein as well as with the ribosome. The newest area of research in the lab extends our strengths in ribosome biochemistry to characterize the translation status of the cell using the ribosome profiling. We are using this technique to better understand the role of several factors involved in eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation fidelity.

Lab Members:
Namesort descending Classification Email
Allen Buskirk Research Associate buskirk@jhmi.edu
Alyssa Everett MBG Administrative Staff aevere11@jhmi.edu
Anthony Veltri Graduate Student anthony.veltri@jhmi.edu
Boris Zinshteyn Postdoctoral Fellow borisz@jhmi.edu
Boyang Hua Postdoctoral Fellow bhua1@jhmi.edu
Chih-Chien (Colin) Wu Postdoctoral Fellow colinccwu@gmail.com, cwu64@jhmi.edu
Daniel Goldman Postdoctoral Fellow goldman@jhmi.edu
James Saba Graduate Student jsaba1@jhmi.edu
Jamie Wangen Postdoctoral Fellow jwangen1@jhmi.edu
Julie Brunelle Research Technologist jbrunelle@jhmi.edu
Karole D'Orazio Graduate Student kdorazi1@jhmi.edu
Kazuki Saito Postdoctoral Fellow ksaito4@jhmi.edu
Laura Lessen Postdoctoral Fellow lnevin1@jhu.edu
Miguel Pacheco Graduate Student mpachec6@jhmi.edu
Niladri Kumar Sinha Postdoctoral Fellow nsinha9@jhmi.edu
Selected Publications:
D'Orazio KN, Wu CC, Sinha NK, Loll-Krippleber R, Brown GW, Green R. (2019) The endonuclease Cue2 cleaves mRNAs at stalled ribosomes during No Go Decay. eLife 2019;8:e49117 doi: 10.7554/eLife.49117 [ link ] [ pdf ]
Kearse MG, Goldman DH, Choi J, Nwaezeapu C, Liang D, Green KM, Goldstrohm AC, Todd PK, Green R, Wilusz JE. (2019) Ribosome queuing enables non-AUG translation to be resistant to multiple protein synthesis inhibitors. Genes and Development 33: 871-885. [ link ] [ pdf ]
Mohammad F, Green R, Buskirk AR. (2019)  A systematically-revised ribosome profiling method for bacteria reveals pauses at single-codon resolution. Elife. 2019 Feb 6;8. pii: e42591.  [ link ]
Wu CC, Zinshteyn B, Wehner KA, Green R. (2019) High-Resolution Ribosome Profiling Defines Discrete Ribosome Elongation States and Translational Regulation during Cellular Stress. Mol Cell. 2019 Jan 11. pii: S1097-2765(18)31063-3. [ link ]
Zinshteyn B, Chan D, England W, Feng C, Green R, Spitale RC. (2019) Assaying RNA structure with LASER-Seq. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jan 10;47(1):43-55.  [ link ]
Paix A, Folkmann A, Goldman DH, Kulaga H, Grzelak MJ, Rasoloson D, Paidemarry S, Green R, Reed RR, Seydoux G. (2017) Precision genome editing using synthesis-dependent repair of Cas9-induced DNA breaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2017) Dec 12;114(50):E10745-E10754. [ link ]
Koutmou KS, Schuller AP, Brunelle JL, Radhakrishnan A, Djuranovic S, Green R. (2015) Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches. Elife 4 doi: 10.7554/eLife.05534. [ pdf ]
Kowalinski E, Schuller A, Green R, Conti E. (2015) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ski7 Is a GTP-Binding Protein Adopting the Characteristic Conformation of Active Translational GTPases. Structure 23(7):1336-43. [ pdf ]
Young DJ, Guydosh NR, Zhang F, Hinnebusch AG, Green R. (2015) Rli1/ABCE1 Recycles Terminating Ribosomes and Controls Translation Reinitiation in 3'UTRs In Vivo. Cell 162(4):872-84. [ pdf ]
Arthur L, Pavlovic-Djuranovic S, Smith-Koutmou K, Green R, Szczesny P, Djuranovic S. (2015) Translational control by lysine-encoding A-rich sequences. Science Advances 1(6): soi:10.1126/sciadv. 1500154. [ pdf ]
Koutmou KS, McDonald ME, Brunelle JL, Green R. (2014) RF3:GTP promotes rapid dissociation of the class 1 termination factor. RNA May;20(5):609-20. [ link ]
Guydosh NR, Green R. (2014) Dom34 rescues ribosomes in 3' untranslated regions. Cell Feb 27;156(5):950-62. [ link ]
Zaher HS, Green R. (2014) In vitro synthesis of proteins in bacterial extracts. Methods in Enzymology 539:3-15. [ link ]
He SL, Green R. (2013) Polysome analysis of mammalian cells. Methods in Enzymology 530:183-92. [ link ]
Djuranovic S, Nahvi A, Green R. (2012) miRNA-mediated gene silencing by translational repression followed by mRNA deadenylation and decay. Science 336, 237-240. [ link ]